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Understanding the dangers of Parvovirus

Introduction

Among the parvum viruses, human parvovirus and adeno-associated virus have inherited the same capsomer structure as the other members of this family, but because human parvovirus is the only known human pathogen, most of the research carried out on parvum viruses to date has exclusively focused on human parvovirus.

The term “parvum virus,” meaning a small virus, was first coined to describe the group of viruses in the Parvoviridae family because their virions are small.
The first parvum virus discovered was the feline parvum virus, which was later found to be causally involved with a highly contagious and often fatal kitten disease called clustered symptom-bearing leukopenia shown by the pre-feline panepidemic virus.
Canine parvovirus is thought to be a mutant strain derived under strong selection pressure throughout the process of adaptation to the feline system. Its homologous gene bits are practically identical with that of feline panepidemic virus.

Consequently, it is widely accepted that feline panepidemic virus was originally a canid parvum virus that acquired canine tissue specificity during feline growth.

Definition

The virus is located in the genus Parvovirus of the family Parvovirus.
Size: The size and diameter of the virus are generally uniform, and a small amount of virus is large, with a diameter of about 18-26nm. Parvovirus is divided into four genera, including carnivorous animal products, human and animal products, human and primate products, human and pig products, and serum. Among them, canine virus infects animals with non-human origin. The main clinical symptoms of parvovirus infection are enteritis and myocarditis.
Puppies who are not immunized have no antibodies to survive and are highly susceptible. Severe symptoms often occur, and the death rate is high. Other symptoms are fever, lymphoma, and white blood cell decline.

The virus is thermosensitive and can be killed by heating above 60°C or exposure to light for 1-2 hours. The virus can be inactivated by commonly used disinfectants such as 2% Lysol, 5% sodium hydroxide, 0.1% formaldehyde, 75% ethanol, and chlorine disinfectant. It can also be combined with 5% iodine. Disinfectants, ultraviolet rays, and other methods are disinfected, but it needs to be sterilized thoroughly.
The wide application of the vaccine can cut off the epidemic of the disease. The technology for the production of the vaccine is perfect, and the economic benefit is good. However, if the use of the vaccine is not standardized, and the management of prevention and control is not reasonable, the pathogen is still difficult to eliminate.

Therefore, in the absence of parvovirus control in endemic areas, it is still highly infectious. Today, it is still a major hazard that plagues infectious diseases of dogs and non-proliferating animals globally.

Parvovirus is a small, single-stranded DNA virus which can infect some mammals. It is named “parvovirus” because it causes severe anaemia and other symptoms in dogs and is often called “canine parvovirus”. Parvovirus was once thought to be a “young disease” and mainly affects young animals, but recent research has shown that it can affect animals of all ages.

It was first reported and identified in 1978. Parvovirus is also called a “young disease”. The disease occurs mostly in young, non-immunized animals less than 4 years of age and has the ability to cause outbreaks regardless of breed. Common hosts include but are not limited to dogs, wolves, foxes etc.
Dogs are the main natural hosts for the disease. Young dogs do not have the ability to be protected by antibodies and have the highest susceptibility to viruses, and occasionally adult dogs will become infected.

History

In the late 19th century and more specifically, in 1878, a disease outbreak caused by a virus named “catarrhal fever” was described by the veterinarians of that period. The subsequent outbreaks were described in other European countries. In 1919, a disease named “infective enteritis” was reported in Europe.
The similarities between both diagnostics were pointed out by scientists. Thus, in 1928, the first isolation of the viral agent was performed by two independent groups, respectively named Dr. Gloor and Dr. Austin.
By the recent use of electron microscopy, US researchers Krinsky and colleagues identified in 1965 the virion, the viral morphogenesis, and the mechanism of viral penetration in the cell. Furthermore, they named the virus discovered then as feline panleucopenia.
The first typing of the viral variants was completed on the basis of the tissue structures or cellular sensitivity to the viral agent, and not by molecular methodologies. In 1978, researchers discovered and characterized the “empty” capsid, the very small molecule, and one unique virus-strand DNA.

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